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Administration Report on the Arbil Division for 1919

Translated to Kurdish by: D. Shamal Hawezi

Abstract

This report “Administration Report on the Arbil Division for 1919” has been prepared by Major Hay the Political Officer of Erbil in 1919 during the occupation of Britain of southern Kurdistan. It takes upon various political, economic, financial, social, health, agricultural, military, advances, waqf, education, taxes, juridical, tribal situation, etc. of the Erbil district in 1919 (the Erbil Division was formed in November 1st, 1919). The report starts with shedding light on geography and ethnographic situation of the region, which was composed in addition to the Erbil Nahiyah, Qushtappah, Kandinawah, Mukhmur, and Quwair. W. R. Hay has also talked about the ethnic composition, religious, tribes, families and personalities all over the Erbil District in this critical historic period.

       Part of this report is being devoted to talking about the Citadel, Minaret, ethnic and religious in Erbil as well famous personalities of town; Mulla Effendi, Ahmad Effendi and Ali pasha, and about the Girdi and Dizai tribes and their chiefs; Jamil Agha, Majid Agha, Ibrahim Agha, Mahmud Kaka Khan, Ahmad Pasha, etc.

       After talking about Erbil Nahiyah, the report take over other Nahiyahs in detail, starting with Qushtappah’s topographic and four sections of Dizai tribe. The report also talking about the relationship conflicts existing between Dizai chiefs on the one hand and their conflicts with the British government on the other hand. The report also lists the characteristics of powerful local figures and tribal leaders of the Kurdish and public relations as well. After that deals with the general situation in Kandinawah, Mukhmur, and Quwair. And deals extensively to political and tribal situations in district, including the rebellion Dizai tribe the power and position of the British during Sheikh Mahmoud revolt and the relationship between the Arab and Kurdish tribes on the both banks of the Tigris, greater Zab and lesser Zab .

     The report also includes the status of the judiciary, the courts and the issues that have been decided in that year and the number of crimes of murder, looting, thefts spotted then shows the setting of the police and gendarmes. The report included the agricultural production, winter crops (wheat and barley in particular) and summer crops such as rice, millet, sorghum, sesame, livestock, chickpeas, cotton, vegetables and fruits. The report addressed to the municipal council and the role of mayors in organizing things in life and service shops and villages.

 The report includes also accurate information supported by statistics (in eight appendixes) about pedigree of dizai chiefs, seed advances, receipts from revenues, customs and kodah, taxes, number of patients in civil hospital. The report also mentioned on the state of the weather, education, health, number of mortgage or registered houses and shops, in addition to public services such as roads, water supplied, bridges, construction of the hospital and the government departments or restoration and establishment of ceremonies carried out by the authority of the British occupation throughout 1919. Erbil was taken over for the British Government on November 11, 1918, two days later Major Murray became the first A. P. O. of Erbil. Major Hay was appointed as P. O. on July 14, 1919.